Essay 5 Questions – Research Ethics
Answer All Parts of All Questions.
(a) In defending the Willowbrook experiment, Saul Krugman and others argue that it will provide future benefits. What is the experiment and what are the future benefits claimed? (For additional background, see pages 38-39.)
(b) In appealing to future benefits, Krugman is making use of Utilitarianism. Explain what Utilitarianism is and show how Krugman uses it.
(c) Paul Ramsey in “Judgment on Willowbrook” challenges Krugman’s defense. Explain Ramsey’s criticism.
(d) Who do you think is right, if either? Explain.
(a) Peter Singer (“Animal Experimentation”) and Carl Cohen (“The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research”) disagree over the ethical legitimacy of using animals in clinical trials.
Explain the difference between their positions. As part of your explanation, describe the role that the ability to feel pain and the ability to act autonomously play in the two viewpoints.
(b) Peter Singer says:
“So whenever experimenters claim that their experiments are important enough to justify the use of animals, we should ask them whether they would be prepared to use a brain-damaged human being at a similar mental level to the animals they are planning to use.” (p. 201)
Explain why Singer says we should ask this question.
(c) How would Cohen reply to Singer? Explain.
(d) Who do you think is right, if either? Explain.
Randomized clinical trials and conflict of interest
What is the purpose of a pre-clinical trial?
What is the purpose of a clinical trial? Explain.
Explain what a control group is and why it is important.
What is “double-blinding” and why is it important in a clinical trial?
What was James Lind’s scurvy experiment and what did it prove? Explain.
Describe one example of a Nazi death camp experiment and why it is unethical.
Conflict of Interest
What is conflict of interest? Provide an example to illustrate your answer. Why is conflict of interest morally objectionable? Explains.
Marcia Angell in the article “Drug Companies and Medicine: What Money Can Buy” (text, pp. 201-206), claims that academic medicine and pharmaceutical companies have different missions. Explain what she means.
Why does Angell think a close relationship between academic medicine and pharmaceutical companies is a bad idea? Explain.
Describe two solutions proposed by Angell for improving the relationship between academic medicine and pharmaceutical companies.
In the article “A Partnership Worth Promoting” (text, pp. 206-207) the author, Emma D’Arcy says:
“Consumers are adept at distinguishing between overt brand promotion and useful information that helps them live longer, healthier, and happier lives.”
What is her point in making this claim?
Who do you think is right Angell or D’Arcy?
Plagiarism Free Papers
We ensure that all our papers are written from scratch. We deliver original plagiarism-free work. To guarantee this, we submit all work alongside a plagiarism report.
All our papers are completed and submitted before the deadline. We ensure this to provide you with enough time to go through the work and point out any sections or topics that may need revision or polishing. We provide unlimited revision services for free.
All papers have a title page providing your personal and institutional information. We do not charge you for this title page.
All papers have a bibliography or references page. This page is a requirement for academic and professional documents. We provide this page at no cost for all our papers.
Originality & Security
At Thehomeworklabs, we guarantee the confidentiality and security of your information. We value our clients and take confidentiality seriously. All personal information is treated with confidentiality and stored safely to ensure that no third parties gain access to it. We also provide original work and attach an originality/plagiarism report alongside all papers.
24/7 Customer Support
Our customer support team is available 24/7 to provide you with any necessary assistance when you need it. You can contact us at any time, day or night, via email or through the live chat button.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
We provide our customers with the best experience in the academic and business writing field.
We provide the best quality of service at affordable prices. We also allow our clients to make partial payments for their orders. You can also contact our customer support team in case you need to discuss a different payment plan.
Admission help & Client-Writer Contact
We realize that sometimes clarification is necessary to ensure that quality work is done. Therefore, we provide a button for clients and writers to communicate in case some clarification is needed.
We ensure that we submit all papers ahead of their respective deadlines. This allows you to go through the documents and request any revision, corrections, or polishing before the paper is due.
We encourage customer feedback, positive or negative. We can identify the various areas that we need to improve to provide even better services through your feedback. Please feel free to give us feedback.