Q.1 Why are words like complexity, pluralism, variety often used in the discussion on:
Theories – Actors- National Interest; in the study of world politics?
World politics is the action and interaction of states at the international level. All states advance their National interests in the international arena. Actors are participants in the international political process and include all countries that close deals with other countries. But with various actors participating at the international level, the systems become more complex. Pluralism seeks to promote the peaceful coexistence of various states and nations by recognizing the diversity that is unique to each actor at the international stage. Through pluralism, international conflicts are minimized, and different convictions and lifestyles are respected. To convince other actors in the international arena while pursuing national interests, countries at the international arena sometimes have to form alliances and lobby to ensure that they are fairly represented at the international stage (Kozhikode, and Li pg. 339). The world politics is fragmented to ensure no single country controls all the decisions at the international stage. The fragmentation leads to a complex international system where no specific country can influence all the political decisions but can affect the specific fragment they control. Resources that are scarce in one country can be readily available in another country or state. Through world politics, countries are exposed to various options by the fact that no single actor makes all the political decisions. Different actors can influence the allocation of resources. Since no central authority exists globally, conflicts between different countries expose the problematic nature of these systems.
What does Conflict and Cooperation illustrate about world politics? Which of the two
seem to affect International Relations the most?
States at the international level are always advancing ways to achieve individual country agenda. In the process of advancing their agenda in a segmented platform, countries appeal to the interest of other countries by providing what they have some control over as an alternative compensation. Sometimes some states fail to honor the agreement or enter into other multiple agreements that have polarized outcomes as compared to the previous state. The never-ending cycle of betrayals leads to the creation of allies. When the problems cannot be resolved, the outcome is a never-ending cycle of conflicts. When the conflicts can be solved through diplomacy, they are converted to cooperation. Cooperation is the adjustment of an actor’s preference in favor of another actor in the political arena. Consequently, in cooperation, countries sign international agreements and adhere to them while refraining on the urge to take unilateral action on the signed agreements or any other collective problem touching on other actors in the arena. To establish cooperation, states in the international arena establish mutually beneficial agreements and contracts. The costs of operating within the boundaries of this agreement are reduced while the cost of the consequences faced when operating out of such agreements’ boundaries is increased (Mitchell pg. 1-4). Cooperation also makes it easier for countries to negotiate agreements while increasing information flow within the participating countries. Cooperation is associated with nature. It involves the active participation of two or more countries. The states under cooperation work together, unlike when under conflict. In complex international systems, countries are likely to navigate towards mutually inclusive agreements. Therefore, cooperation affects International Relations more than conflict does.
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