Rainwater Harvesting methods:
Rainwaterharvestingcouldreally be the solution for countries at risk of water scarcity or alreadyexperiencing it. A lot of researchconfirmed the importance of water management in developingcountries, duetomany factors water management has not been explored to its full extent in theseareas. Rainwater harvesting can be a wonderful wayfor economically low areas to improvetheir food production while empowering population in their rural areas.Rainwaterharvesting is defined as “the collection and storage of anyform of water either from runoff or creekflow for irrigation use” (B.Biazan et al.). Rainwaterharvesting has been considered for a while as ahouseholdlevelpractices; It is only during the recentdecadesthat it has been studied for agricultural uses.The water collected can be used for cropirrigation,infiltrationimprovement, surface runoffreduction andeven water supply for livestock. ( B.Biazan et al.).
Rainwater Harvesting has the potential to mitigate water shortages and improving Sub Saharan African population( Baguna and Loiskandl). Today’s worldsevolve around fighting hunger and water scarcity;two of the UN (United Nations) Millenium Development Goal is to decrease the amount of people without access to water and adequate food (Helmreich and Horn, 2008).
Rainfed agriculture represents about 70% of Africa GDP with the lowest rate of productivity. More that 90% of crop land are rainfed agriculture, only 2% of cultivate land is under irrigation; Sub Saharan Africa is unable to afford irrigation, therefore rainfed agriculture represents the major food source in that area. ( Biazin et al.,2011).
A few rainwater harvesting methods fits particularly with Sub Saharan Africa climate and rainfall frequency.
Micro catchment is a rainwater harvesting design that is constructed to accumulate rainfall runoff from little catchment of about 10-500 m2 ( Biazin et al.,2011). This method consists of pitting contouring, terracing and micro basins that happen to be the most common micro catchment techniques used in Sub Saharan Africa; micro catchment methods are simply controllable by farmers because it does not require much equipment’s. (Biazin et al.,2011). Micro catchments centers rainfall runoff around the plan where it accumulates and penetrate the soil; that way the water concentrated is available for plants. The technic only required basic materials and handy work (Helmreich and Horn, 2008).
Threemethods of micro catchment
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