Biological Macromolecules

Biological Macromolecules Homework: Carbohydrates and Lipids


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  1. Fill out the following table (you will only be able to fill out the carbohydrates and lipids at this time, but will finish the table next time after our proteins and nucleic acids lecture).
Biological Macromolecule Elements Functional Groups Linear/Circular? Monomer Bond between monomers Polymer Example
Nucleic Acids            



  1. Vitamin D is important for your health, but most people do not get enough of it. For this reason, taking Vitamin D supplements is very common. Although rare, it is possible for a person to reach toxic levels of vitamin D because it is not soluble in your bloodstream and is thus difficult to remove from the body.
  • Below you will find the structure of vitamin D.
  1. Describe the structure of vitamin D (Element composition, linear/ring, polarity, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, etc.)
  2. How does the element composition relate to its polarity and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties?
  3. What does the structure of Vitamin D remind you of?
  4. How could this explain why Vitamin D overdose can occur?
  5. How many water molecules are used or released to form a single triacylglyceride? What about a phospholipid? Explain what each water molecule is used for. Please include the name of bonds and functional groups that are included.


  1. What is wrong with the following glucose structure? How can it be fixed? What functional group is formed once it is fixed? What property does that functional group give to the glucose molecule?



  1. In class we discussed how lactose intolerance is the result of individuals not producing enough lactase to digest the disaccharide lactose into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. Knowing this, do you believe people with lactose intolerance have trouble with the hydrolysis or dehydration synthesis of lactose? Does the medication Lactaid, which supplies an individual’s intestines with lactase, require or release energy? What about water? What kind of bond is the lactase breaking or forming? What functional group is formed after lactase performs its job?



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