This week we will discuss Substance Related Disorders. There is a common use of certain terms in the popular language such as “addict” or “alcoholic” that are not terms used clinically. The correct clinical terminology is to say substance dependent, substance intoxicated, substance withdrawal where the substance of choice is filled in ( i.e., alcohol dependence disorder rather than alcoholic or alcoholism).
I was the director of an adolescent substance rehab partial hospital program for several years. It was a challenging and heartbreaking job seeing the adolescents and their families go through the pain, legal issues, disruptions, and damage caused by the abuse of mind-altering substances. It is particularly heartbreaking and damaging in those below age 25 because of the ongoing brain development that is disrupted. In my private practice, I lost 2 clients to heroin overdose. It was heartbreaking. Both were under age 25.
It is important to understand that the use of substances to alter one’s consciousness is as old as time. In the modern world ( post 1900 A.D. ), there has been a turn toward both the criminalization of drug use/abuse as well as the assignment of character and moral flaws for those who use/abuse substances. However, that is not currently the case for alcohol nor marijuana. Alcohol is a legal substance of use/abuse throughout our country and internationally. Marijuana is now legal in many states and internationally. It’s important to understand from a clinical standpoint that these are still drugs of use/abuse despite their current social acceptance. Also, let’s remember that it is hard to be human, which is why throughout history and around the world all cultures and peoples have turned to substances that alter their minds as a means of pleasure and escape. This is why we do not judge or look down upon those who are
Title page, 2 content pages, reference page in APA style: summarize all videos, articles and textbook.
Khary K. Rigg, Harvey L. Nicholson,
Prescription opioid misuse among African-American adults: A rural-urban comparison of prevalence and risk,
Drug and Alcohol Dependence,
Abstract: Background: Prescription opioid misuse (POM) remains a public health concern in the United States. Although the problem has been studied extensively, little research attention is paid to POM among African-Americans (AAs), and even fewer studies consider rural status in their analysis. The goal of this study, therefore, was to identify and compare prevalence and predictors of POM among rural and urban AA adults using data from a nationally representative sample. Methods: Using pooled data across five years (2012–2016) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to determine which factors were associated with POM among AA adults. Results: Findings show that urban and rural AAs have comparable prevalence rates of POM, which is somewhat surprising given that POM often varies based on rural status. A number of factors (e.g., receiving government assistance, religiosity, smoking tobacco or marijuana, misuse of other prescription medications) were significantly correlated with POM for urban and rural AAs, while others (e.g., being age 50+, graduating high school, visiting an emergency department, being arrested, binge drinking) varied by rural status. Conclusion: Results indicate that AA nonmedical prescription opioid users are not a monolith and have distinct demographic, clinical, and psychosocial profiles based on geographic region. Because AAs have been virtually ignored in the POM literature, our findings are an important step towards understanding POM among this understudied group. These results invite additional investigation into AA POM and encourage researchers to consider rural status in their analysis of POM among AAs.
Keywords: Prescription opioid misuse; Nonmedical use; Blacks; African-Americans; Rural; Urban
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